Saturday, July 15, 2017
Extending 135 km around the city of Amsterdam, this defence line (built between 1883 and 1920) is the only example of a fortification based on the principle of controlling the waters. Since the 16th century, the people of the Netherlands have used their expert knowledge of hydraulic engineering for defence purposes. The centre of the country was protected by a network of 45 armed forts, acting in concert with temporary flooding from polders and an intricate system of canals and locks.
The Defence Line of Amsterdam was built between 1883 and 1920 to guard the capital Amsterdam. It is the only example of a fortification based on the control of water.
The protection of the centre of the country was ensured by a network of 45 forts and their artillery acting in concert with temporary flooding from polders and an intricate system of canals and locks.
Below you find the full list of fortresses and batteries that make up this worldheritage. Only some of them are (infrequently) open to visitors.
Name of site (Municipality)
Fort Near Edam (Edam-Volendam)
Fort Near Kwadijk (never completed) (Zeevang)
Fort north of Purmerend (Beemster)
Fort along Nekkerweg (Beemster)
Fort along Middenweg (Beemster)
Fort along Jisperweg (Beemster)
Fort near Spijkerboor (Beemster)
Fort near Marken-Binnen (Uitgeest)
Fort near Krommeniedijk (Uitgeest)
Fort along de Ham (Zaanstad)
Fort near Veldhuis (Heemskerk)
Fort along the St. Aagtendijk (Beverwijk)
Fort Zuidwijkermeer (Beverwijk)
Fort near Velsen (Beverwijk)
Coastal Fort near IJmuiden (Velsen)
Fort north of Spaardam (Velsen)
Fort south of Spaardam (Haarlem)
Fort near Penningsveer (Haarlemmerliede)
Fort near the Liebrug (Haarlemmerliede)
Fort de Liede (Haarlemmerliede)
Fort Bij Heemstede (Haarlemmermeer)
Advanced defense at Vijfhuizen (Haarlemmermeer)
Fort near Vijfhuizen (Haarlemmermeer)
Battery along IJweg (Haarlemmermeer)
Fort near Hoofddorp (Haarlemmermeer)
Battery along Sloterweg (Haarlemmermeer)
Fort near Aalsmeer (Haarlemmermeer)
Fort near Kudelstaart (Aalsmeer)
Fort near de Kwakel (Uithoorn)
Fort along the Drecht (Uithoorn)
Fort near Uithoorn (De Ronde Venen)
Fort near Wavel-Amstel (De Ronde Venen)
Fort in the Waver-Botshol (never completed) (Abcoude)
Fort along De Winkel (never completed) (Abcoude)
Fort near Abcoude (Abcoude)
Fort near Nigtevecht (Abcoude)
Fort near Hinderdam (Weesp)
Fort Uitermeer (Weesp)
Weesp Fortress - Defensive tower on the Ossenmarket (Weesp)
Muiden Fortress (Muiden)
Muiden west battery (Muiden)
Fort Kijkuit ('s-Graveland)
Battery near the IJ before Diemerdam (Diemen)
Fort along the Pampus (Muiden) (on the postcard)
Battery near the IJ before Durgerdam (Amsterdam)
The Sikhote-Alin mountain range contains one the richest and most unusual temperate forests of the world. In this mixed zone between taiga and subtropics, southern species such as the tiger and Himalayan bear cohabit with northern species such as the brown bear and lynx. The site stretches from the peaks of Sikhote-Alin to the Sea of Japan and is important for the survival of many endangered species such as the Amur tiger.
The Sikhote-Alin is a mountain range in Primorsky and Khabarovsk Krais, Russia, extending about 900 km to the northeast of the Russian Pacific seaport of Vladivostok.
The highest summits are Tordoki Yani (2,077 m) and Anik Mountain (1,933 m).
Sikhote-Alin comprises one of the most extraordinary temperate zones in the world. Species typical of northern taiga (such as reindeer and the brown bear) coexist with tropical species like the Siberian tiger and the Himalayan bear.
Monday, June 19, 2017
Berlin Modernism Housing Estates
Berlin Modernism Housing Estates. The property consists of six housing estates that testify to innovative housing policies from 1910 to 1933, especially during the Weimar Republic, when the city of Berlin was particularly progressive socially, politically and culturally. The property is an outstanding example of the building reform movement that contributed to improving housing and living conditions for people with low incomes through novel approaches to town planning, architecture and garden design. The estates also provide exceptional examples of new urban and architectural typologies, featuring fresh design solutions, as well as technical and aesthetic innovations. Bruno Taut, Martin Wagner and Walter Gropius were among the leading architects of these projects which exercised considerable influence on the development of housing around the world.
The "Berlin Modernism Housing Estates" represent low income housing architecture from the early 20th century.
Bruno Taut, Martin Wagner and Walter Gropius were among the leading architects of these projects which exercised considerable influence on the development of housing around the world.
The six included estates are:
- Tuschkastensiedlung Falkenberg, 1913-16, by Bruno Taut
- Wohnstadt Carl Legien in Prenzlauer Berg, 1928-30, by Bruno Taut
- Ringsiedlung in Siemensstadt,1929-34, by Hans Scharoun and Martin Wagner
- Hufeisensiedlung Britz, 1925-30, by Bruno Taut
- Siedlung Schillerpark im Wedding, 1924-30, by Bruno Taut
- Weiße Stadt in Reinickendorf, 1929-31, by Otto Rudolf Salivsberg and Martin Wagner
Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg
These places in Saxony-Anhalt are all associated with the lives of Martin Luther and his fellow-reformer Melanchthon. They include Melanchthon's house in Wittenberg, the houses in Eisleben where Luther was born in 1483 and died in 1546, his room in Wittenberg, the local church and the castle church where, on 31 October 1517, Luther posted his famous '95 Theses', which launched the Reformation and a new era in the religious and political history of the Western world.
The Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg bear testimony to the Protestant Reformation. These two towns in former Eastern Germany are closely related to the lives of Martin Luther and his fellow-reformer Melanchthon.
The site includes the houses in Eisleben where Luther was born in 1483 and died in 1546, his room in Wittenberg, the local church and the castle church where, on 31 October 1517, Luther posted his famous '95 Theses', which launched the Reformation and a new era in the religious and political history of the Western world.
Friday, March 31, 2017
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks
Nestled high in West Himalaya, India’s Valley of Flowers National Park is renowned for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and outstanding natural beauty. This richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, brown bear and blue sheep. The gentle landscape of the Valley of Flowers National Park complements the rugged mountain wilderness of Nanda Devi National Park. Together they encompass a unique transition zone between the mountain ranges of the Zanskar and Great Himalaya, praised by mountaineers and botanists for over a century and in Hindu mythology for much longer.
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks cover a high-altitude mountain valley renowned for its diverse alpine flora. The two parks are located in the Himalayas.
Nanda Devi National Park is dominated by India's second highest mountain, the Nanda Devi. It is largely unspoilt and free from human settlement. It has been closed to foreign visitors until 1974. Threatened mammals in the area include the snow leopard and Himalayan musk deer.
The Valley of Flowers National Park lies at a distance of 23km from Nanda Devi. It is also uninhabited. It is home to tahr, snow leopard, musk deer, red fox, common langur, bharal, serow, Himalayan black bear and a huge variety of butterflies. Its diverse flora is known for its medicinal plants.
Historic Site of Lyon
The long history of Lyons, which was founded by the Romans in the 1st century B.C. as the capital of the Three Gauls and has continued to play a major role in Europe's political, cultural and economic development ever since, is vividly illustrated by its urban fabric and the many fine historic buildings from all periods.
Lyon has been a flourishing trading city since Roman times. It owes that continuous prosperity to its strategic location at the confluence of the Rhône and Saône rivers. The city was known especially for the silk trade, but it also held important financial institutions and an early printing industry.
Lyon was founded as Lugdunum in 43 BC. Under Roman rule it was connected by a network of roads, and it even held the headquarters of the Imperial government.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, Lyon subsequently became part of Lotharingia, Burgundy, the Holy Roman Empire and (the Kingdom of) France respectively. From the 16th century onwards the city expanded beyond its traditional quarters at the Croix-Rousse and Fourvière hills.
Old Town of Cáceres
The city's history of battles between Moors and Christians is reflected in its architecture, which is a blend of Roman, Islamic, Northern Gothic and Italian Renaissance styles. Of the 30 or so towers from the Muslim period, the Torre del Bujaco is the most famous.
The old town of Caceres is renowned for its well-preserved 12th century Arab city walls (notably the Torre Mochada and Torre del Bujaco). Caceres was recaptured from the Moors in 1229.
New groups of settlers were attracted, which led to rivalling factions constructing their houses, palaces and towers in their own styles. The city's architecture now is a blend of Roman, Islamic, Northern Gothic and Italian Renaissance styles.